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►Atlas.Typhoëus.Prometheus◄ being.tortured.insurgents [_550 BC_] images|Nice [kindle Fire Support] photos]

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►Atlas.Typhoëus.Prometheus◄ being.tortured.insurgents [_550 BC_]
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Image by quapan
Atlas & Typhoëus & Prometheus: The three heads of the insurgency are shown
while they are being punished (Laconic bowl ~550 BC).

Prometheus is tied to a column representing the Caucasus.
Atlas acts as the column at the opposite side of the hellenic world.
The two best friends were oppressed into face-to-face-opposition to each other.
Typhoëus is represented by the column propping up the floor upon which the two other titans are trying to stand, i.e. they are forced into a precarious ‘kneeling’ posture which is part of their cruel punishment for their insurgency against the tyrant Zeus.

Three points form a Right Angle for a pythagorean triangle: eye of Prometheus [looking into the direction of the] – eye of Atlas [looking into the direction of the] – left side of the column representing the invisualized Typhoëus under his left big toe.

Atlas one of the titans who was punished for his part in their revolt against Zeus by being made to support the heavens. He became identified with the Atlas Mountains. [NODE]
Typhoëus (‘Typho’. Not to confound with the word ‘typhoon’ from the chinese ‘tai fung’= ‘big wind’ !): In aeschylean tragedies he was the titan buried under the vulcano Aetna [A.Pr.372, A.Th.517, A.Supp 560] . The proudest of the titans was punished for his hubris with invisibility. – Pindar gives his birthplace as Cilicia, but places him under Cyme and Sicily, and so accounts for the eruptions of Aetna.[LSJ]
Prometheus a demigod, one of the Titans, who was worshipped by craftsmen. When Zeus stole fire away from man Prometheus hid it by trickery and returned it to earth. As punishment Zeus chained him to a rock where an eagle fed each day on his liver, which grew again each night; he was rescued by Hercules. [NODE]
titan any of the older gods who preceded the Olympians and were the children of Uranus (Heaven) and Gaia (Earth). Led by Cronus, they overthrew Uranus; Cronus’ son, Zeus, then rebelled against his father and eventually defeated the titans. [NODE]

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"This is a cropping …, so PD-Art can’t apply"
wikimedia commons hat am 26. April 2009 mein PNG-Image wegen möglicher ©-Klagen gelöscht, weil ich es einige Tage als Crop von {{PD-Art}}
beschrieben hatte. Diese Unternehmer haben aber weiterhin meine am 24.Januar 2008 hochgeladene commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Atlas_Typhoeus_Prometheus… in ihrer Bibliothek, welche allerdings von keiner wikipedia-Datei verwendet wird und von mir nicht als Crop gekennzeichnet worden ist. ©-Klagen meinerseits scheinen sie also momentan nicht zu befürchten.
26. April 2009 KB Der gefesselte Prometheus (Aischylos)‎; 11:04 . . (-169) . . CommonsDelinker (Diskussion | Beiträge) (AtlasTyphoeusPrometheus.png entfernt, wurde auf Commons von Polarlys gelöscht. Grund: This is a cropping of a kylix (drinking cup), a 3D object, so PD-Art can’t apply.) –Quapan 06:47, 29. Apr. 2009 (CEST)
CommonsDelinker Der von Orgullomoore, Siebrand und Bryan geschriebene und von Siebrand gewartete CommonsDelinker ist ein Dienst für die einzelnen Sprachwikis der Commons:Administratoren zur Verbesserung der Transwiki-Kooperation. Dafür werden Bilder, die auf den Wikimedia Commons gelöscht wurden, durch diesen Dienst entlinkt, damit keine roten Links, wie hier rechts, erscheinen. Der CommonsDelinker ist verwandt mit dem CommonsTicker und hat auch dasselbe Ziel. Er ist aber dennoch nicht als Ersatz für den CommonsTicker gedacht, da das manuelle Entfernen der Bilder und besser noch der Ersatz mit einem anderen freiem Bild leider verständlicher Weise nicht automatisch funktioniert. Ebenso kann es Situationen geben, wo der CommonsDelinker ein Bild nicht entfernen kann. Trotzdem können die Commons nicht länger als die übliche Löschdiskussionsdauer warten, dass die Communities auf die CommonsTicker-Meldungen reagieren und einen Ersatz für die Bilder finden. Der CommonsDelinker kommt erst nach der Löschung eines Bildes zum Einsatz.

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Die Hesperiden sind die Töchter, und Hesperos gilt als Sohn oder Bruder des Atlas, der den Himmel abstützt. Dieser befindet sich seit alters in der Nähe der Hesperiden (46). Er wird allerdings nicht mit dem heutigen Atlas-Gebirge identifiziert, sondern mit dem Teide auf Teneriffa (47). Hesiod lokalisiert ihn an jenem ‚Haus‘, wo sich „Nacht und Tag nahekommen und sich begegnen und auf der großen ehernen Schwelle ablösen“ (48). Daß diese Atlas-Vorstellung ebenfalls in den Westen gehört, beweist die Übereinstimmung mit der Figur des Upelluri der Hethiter (49). Die vielen Diskussionen über das hesiodische Bild hätte man sich ersparen können, wenn berücksichtigt worden wäre, daß nicht erst im Juden- und Christentum, sondern auch schon in der griechischen Antike – im Gegensatz zu unserem heutigen Lebensgefühl – die Tagesgrenze häufig beim Sonnenuntergang angenommen wurde, mit dem der alte Tag gleichsam stirbt, damit aber gleichzeitig der neue geboren wird (50).
Bei Hesiod ist schließlich auch schon die Polarität der beiden Iapetossöhne angedeutet (52), nach der der älteste, Prometheus, im Osten an den Kaukasus geschmiedet ist und der jüngste, Atlas, im Westen bei den Hesperiden den Himmel abstützt; beide werden sie von Herakles besucht.
Hesiod kennt außer den Bergen und Gewässern noch weitere geophysikalische Phänomene: Die Winde sind Söhne des Unholds Typhoeus (53). Diesen hat Zeus in den Tartaros geschleudert, so daß die Erde von seinem Feuer geschmolzen ist. Dabei gestaltet der Dichter ein Gleichnis nach homerischer Art, das man verschieden gedeutet hat: Als tertium comparationis gilt entweder das „Stöhnen“ der Erde, das von manchen als Erdboden (54), richtiger jedoch als vulkanische Erscheinung gedeutet wird (55). Auf jeden Fall befindet sich Typhoeus bei Hesiod noch nicht unter einem feuerspeienden Berg wie später bei Pindar und Aischylos (56). Ob der homerische Polyphem mit seinem ‚Kreisauge‘ und seinem Steinwurf auf Odysseus wirklich eine vulkanische Grundlage hat (57) oder vielleicht auch Aiolie, die Insel des Windgottes (58), ist nicht so sicher wie der vulkanische Ursprung des Hephaistos-Kultes auf der ehemals vulkanischen Insel Lemnos, auf die Zeus seinen unglücklichen Sohn geschleudert haben soll (59). Wir haben hier einen typischen Fall von „Geomythologie“ vor uns (60).
Der häufig mit Typhoeus gleichgesetzte Typhon aus Kilikien, der Unhold eines vorgriechischen orientalischen Mythos, wurde in Ägypten für die Nilschwellen am Neujahrsanfang verantwortlich gemacht und diente der spätantiken politischen Rhetorik dazu, den Apostaten Julianos zu verteufeln. Julians heidnische Reaktion wurde dabei entweder mit Erd-, Seebeben oder Stürmen verglichen, oder man behauptete, sie sei ex eventu durch diese Zeichen einer allgemeinen kosmischen Unordnung angekündigt worden. Nach dem Tode Julians wurde diese Assoziation auf den Usurpator Prokopios übertragen (61).
Der heidnische Redner Libanios bemüht in diesem Zusammenhang auch den Gott Poseidon (62). Noch in der modernen Forschung wird der „Erderschütterer“ Poseidon für Erdbeben verantwortlich gemacht. E. Bickel (63) und F. Schachermeyr (64) haben die kühne Hypothese vertreten, daß das dem Gott Poseidon geweihte hölzerne Pferd von Troja nichts anderes sei als der mythische Ausdruck für die Tatsache, daß Troja VIb durch ein Erdbeben zerstört wurde, eine These, die in den zahlreichen Rezensionen des Buches von Schachermeyr nahezu unwidersprochen geblieben ist (65).
Auch andere Mythen, die zwar nicht in den homerischen Epen belegt sind, aber durchaus alt sein können, haben erdgeschichtliche Dimensionen. Die Flut des Deukalion zeugt – zeugt wie die im Alten Testament – von einer früheren allgemeinen Sintflut (66).

ANMERKUNGEN (46-66)
—► 46 Nebeneinander erscheinen Hesperiden und Atlas bei Hesiod, Theogonie 517f.: Ἄτλας δ᾽ οὐρανὸν εὐρὺν ἔχει κρατερῆς ὑπ᾽ ἀνάγκης πείρασιν ἐν γαίης, πρόπαρ Εσπερίδων λιγυφώνων, vgl. Euripides, Hippolytos 742-747.
—► 47 Seit Ludwig Ideler: Hennig, Geographie, 53-56.
—► 48 Hesiod, Theogonie 748-750: ἀστεμφέως, ὅθι Νύξ τε καὶ Ἡμέρη ἆσσον ἰοῦσαι ἀλλήλας προσέειπον, ἀμειβόμεναι μέγαν οὐδὸν 750χάλκεον: ἣ μὲν ἔσω καταβήσεται, ἣ δὲ θύραζε.
—► 49 Arrighetti, Cosmologia mitica, 52-60 (=204-212).
—► 50 Hierzu Coillandre, La droite et la gauche. 316-323. Neugebauer. On the date, 565-569. Hübner, Kritische Bemerkungen 253-259. Über eine symbolische Ausdeutung dieser Reihenfolge ders.; der Ordo der Realien, 36.
—► 51 Hesiod, Theogonie 124: Bruder der Tages ist der Aither = Νυκτὸς δ᾽ αὖτ᾽ Αἰθήρ τε καὶ Ἡμέρη ἐξεγένοντο). vgl. die Reihenfolge bei Homer, Odyssee 10.80 νύκτας τε καὶ ἦμαρ, 10,86 νυκτός τε καὶ ἤματός. Parmenides. 28 B 1,11 Diels-Kranz ἔνθα πύλαι νυκτός τε καὶ ἤματός εἰσι κελεύθων u.ö.
—► 52 Hesiod, Theogonie 517-525 (Hesiod nennt an dieser Stelle wohl die Hesperiden, aber nicht den Kaukasus). Vgl. dann Aischylos, Prometheus 348f., Cicero, Tusculanae disputationes 5,8. Nach Aischylos, Prometheus lyomennos frg. 199 Radt (=326a Mette) bei Strabon. Geographika 4,1,7 zeigt Prometheus dem Herakles den Weg zu den Hesperiden.
—► 53 Hesiod, Theogonie 869-880, hierzu Said, Les Combats de Zeus 205f.
—► 54 Kopp, Weltbild, 48f. West. Hesiod Theogony.392 zu Vers 858 στονάχιζε [Triclinius, στενάχιζε codd.] δὲ γαῖα πελώρη: „this is the tertium comparationis in the Homeric simile. The lashing of Typhoeus was apparently a mythical of earthquakes.“
—► 55 Hesiod, Theogonie 860 οὔρεος ἐν βήσσῃσιν Αἴτνης ist Konjektur des Textes, überliefert ist an letzter Stelle † ἀιδνῇς, was West als locus conclamatus im Text beläßt, vgl. seine lange Note auf S.393. Dennoch wird die Deutung als Vulkanausbruch allgemein angenommen. Blaise, L’ épisode de Typhée, 362 beschränkt die Macht des „Anti-Zeus“ allzusehr auf das Feuer, um es dem Feuer (Blitz) des Zeus entgegenzusetzen.
—► 56 Pindar, Pythien I, 13-60: ὅσσα δὲ μὴ πεφίληκε Ζεύς, ἀτύζονται βοὰν Πιερίδων ἀΐοντα, γᾶν τε καὶ πόντον κατ᾽ ἀμαιμάκετον, [30] ὅς τ᾽ ἐν αἰνᾷ Ταρτάρῳ κεῖται, θεῶν πολέμιος, Τυφὼς ἑκατοντακάρανος: τόν ποτε Κιλίκιον θρέψεν πολυώνυμον ἄντρον: νῦν γε μὰν ταί θ᾽ ὑπὲρ Κύμας ἁλιερκέες ὄχθαι Σικελία τ᾽ αὐτοῦ πιέζει στέρνα λαχνάεντα: κίων δ᾽ οὐρανία συνέχει, νιφόεσσ᾽ Αἴτνα, πάνετες χιόνος ὀξείας τιθήνα: [40] τᾶς ἐρεύγονται μὲν ἀπλάτου πυρὸς ἁγνόταται ἐκ μυχῶν παγαί: ποταμοὶ δ᾽ ἁμέραισιν μὲν προχέοντι ῥόον καπνοῦ αἴθων᾽: ἀλλ᾽ ἐν ὄρφναισιν πέτρας φοίνισσα κυλινδομένα φλὸξ ἐς βαθεῖαν φέρει πόντου πλάκα σὺν πατάγῳ. κεῖνο δ᾽ Ἁφαίστοιο κρουνοὺς ἑρπετὸν [50] δεινοτάτους ἀναπέμπει: τέρας μὲν θαυμάσιον προσιδέσθαι, θαῦμα δὲ καὶ παρεόντων ἀκοῦσαι, οἷον Αἴτνας ἐν μελαμφύλλοις δέδεται κορυφαῖς καὶ πέδῳ, στρωμνὰ δὲ χαράσσοισ᾽ ἅπαν νῶτον ποτικεκλιμένον κεντεῖ. εἴη, Ζεῦ, τὶν εἴη ἁνδάνειν, ὃς τοῦτ᾽ ἐφέπεις ὄρος, εὐκάρποιο γαίας μέτωπον, τοῦ μὲν ἐπωνυμίαν κλεινὸς οἰκιστὴρ ἐκύδανεν πόλιν [60] γείτονα, Πυθιάδος δ᾽ ἐν δρόμῳ κάρυξ ἀνέειπέ νιν ἀγγέλλων Ἱέρωνος ὑπὲρ καλλινίκου ἅρμασι.
But those whom Zeus does not love are stunned with terror when they hear the cry of the Pierian Muses, on earth or on the irresistible sea; [15] among them is he who lies in dread Tartarus, that enemy of the gods, Typhon with his hundred heads. Once the famous Cilician cave nurtured him, but now the sea-girt cliffs above Cumae, and Sicily too, lie heavy on his shaggy chest. And the pillar of the sky holds him down, [20] snow-covered Aetna, year-round nurse of bitter frost, from whose inmost caves belch forth the purest streams of unapproachable fire. In the daytime her rivers roll out a fiery flood of smoke, while in the darkness of night the crimson flame hurls rocks down to the deep plain of the sea with a crashing roar. [25] That monster shoots up the most terrible jets of fire; it is a marvellous wonder to see, and a marvel even to hear about when men are present. Such a creature is bound beneath the dark and leafy heights of Aetna and beneath the plain, and his bed scratches and goads the whole length of his back stretched out against it. Grant that we may be pleasing to you, Zeus, [30] you who frequent this mountain, this brow of the fruitful earth, whose namesake city near at hand was glorified by its renowned founder, when the herald at the Pythian racecourse proclaimed the name of Aetna, announcing Hieron’s triumph with the chariot.
Aischylos, Prometheus 363-365,
ἐγὼ γὰρ οὐκ, εἰ δυστυχῶ, τοῦδ᾽ εἵνεκα θέλοιμ᾽ ἂν ὡς πλείστοισι πημονὰς τυχεῖν. οὐ δῆτ᾽ ἐπεί με καὶ κασιγνήτου τύχαι τείρουσ᾽ Ἄτλαντος, ὃς πρὸς ἑσπέρους τόπους ἕστηκε κίον᾽ οὐρανοῦ τε καὶ χθονὸς ὤμοις ἐρείδων, ἄχθος οὐκ εὐάγκαλον. τὸν γηγενῆ τε Κιλικίων οἰκήτορα ἄντρων ἰδὼν ᾤκτιρα, δάιον τέρας ἑκατογκάρανον πρὸς βίαν χειρούμενον Τυφῶνα θοῦρον: πᾶσιν [ὅς] ἀντέστη θεοῖς, σμερδναῖσι γαμφηλαῖσι συρίζων φόβον: ἐξ ὀμμάτων δ᾽ ἤστραπτε γοργωπὸν σέλας, ὡς τὴν Διὸς τυραννίδ᾽ ἐκπέρσων βίᾳ: ἀλλ᾽ ἦλθεν αὐτῷ Ζηνὸς ἄγρυπνον βέλος, καταιβάτης κεραυνὸς ἐκπνέων φλόγα, ὃς αὐτὸν ἐξέπληξε τῶν ὑψηγόρων κομπασμάτων. φρένας γὰρ εἰς αὐτὰς τυπεὶς ἐφεψαλώθη κἀξεβροντήθη σθένος. καὶ νῦν ἀχρεῖον καὶ παράορον δέμας κεῖται στενωποῦ πλησίον θαλασσίου ἰπούμενος ῥίζαισιν Αἰτναίαις ὕπο: κορυφαῖς δ᾽ ἐν ἄκραις ἥμενος μυδροκτυπεῖ Ἥφαιστος: ἔνθεν ἐκραγήσονταί ποτε ποταμοὶ πυρὸς δάπτοντες ἀγρίαις γνάθοις τῆς καλλικάρπου Σικελίας λευροὺς γύας: τοιόνδε Τυφὼς ἐξαναζέσει χόλον θερμοῖς ἀπλάτου βέλεσι πυρπνόου ζάλης, καίπερ κεραυνῷ Ζηνὸς ἠνθρακωμένος.
www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Aesch.+PB+343&f…:
For even if I am in sore plight, I would not wish affliction on everyone else. No, certainly, no! since, besides, I am distressed by the fate of my brother Atlas, who, towards the west, stands bearing on his shoulders the pillar of heaven and earth, a burden not easy for his arms to grasp. Pity moved me, too, at the sight of the earth-born dweller of the Cilician caves curbed by violence, that destructive monster of a hundred heads, impetuous Typhon. He withstood all the gods, hissing out terror with horrid jaws, while from his eyes lightened a hideous glare, as though he would storm by force the sovereignty of Zeus. But the unsleeping bolt of Zeus came upon him, the swooping lightning brand with breath of flame, which struck him, frightened, from his loud-mouthed boasts; then, stricken to the very heart, he was burnt to ashes and his strength blasted from him by the lightning bolt. And now, a helpless and a sprawling bulk, he lies hard by the narrows of the sea, pressed down beneath the roots of Aetna; while on the topmost summit Hephaestus sits and hammers the molten ore. There, one day, shall burst forth rivers of fire, with savage jaws devouring the level fields of Sicily, land of fair fruit—such boiling rage shall Typho, although charred by the blazing lightning of Zeus, send spouting forth with hot jets of appalling, fire-breathing surge.
vgl. Vergil, Aeneis 3, 578ff von Enceladus:
Portus ab accessu ventorum immotus et ingens ipse; sed horrificis iuxta tonat Aetna ruinis; interdumque atram prorumpit ad aethera nubem, turbine fumantem piceo et candente favilla, attollitque globos flammarum et sidera lambit; 575interdum scopulos avolsaque viscera montis erigit eructans, liquefactaque saxa sub auras cum gemitu glomerat, fundoque exaestuat imo. Fama est Enceladi semustum fulmine corpus urgueri mole hac, ingentemque insuper Aetnam 580impositam ruptis flammam exspirare caminis; et fessum quotiens mutet latus, intremere omnem murmure Trinacriam, et caelum subtexere fumo. Noctem illam tecti silvis immania monstra perferimus, nec quae sonitum det causa videmus. 585Nam neque erant astrorum ignes, nec lucidus aethra siderea polus, obscuro sed nubila caelo, et lunam in nimbo nox intempesta tenebat.
Translation (John Dryden) of Verg. A. 3.578 ffThe port capacious, and secure from wind, Is to the foot of thund’ring Aetna join’d. By turns a pitchy cloud she rolls on high; By turns hot embers from her entrails fly, And flakes of mounting flames, that lick the sky. Oft from her bowels massy rocks are thrown, And, shiver’d by the force, come piecemeal down. Oft liquid lakes of burning sulphur flow, Fed from the fiery springs that boil below. Enceladus, they say, transfix’d by Jove, With blasted limbs came tumbling from above; And, where he fell, th’ avenging father drew This flaming hill, and on his body threw. As often as he turns his weary sides, He shakes the solid isle, and smoke the heavens hides. In shady woods we pass the tedious night, Where bellowing sounds and groans our souls affright, Of which no cause is offer’d to the sight; For not one star was kindled in the sky, Nor could the moon her borrow’d light supply; For misty clouds involv’d the firmament, The stars were muffled, and the moon was pent.
adnotation for Verg A. 578 by John Conington :
The name of the giant who was supposed to be placed under Aetna was variously given in the legends. Pindar l. c. and Aesch. Prom. 354 make it Typhocus or Typhon, Callim. in Del. 143 Briareus. In A. 9. 716, following (though misinterpreting) Hom., Virgil places Typhoeus under Inarime or Pithecusa. ‘Semustum’ is found here in most of the MSS., including Med., which has the same form in 11. 200. See on v. 244.
John Conington. P. Vergili Maronis opera. P. Vergili Maronis Opera. The works of Virgil, with a Commentary by John Conington, M.A. Late Corpus Professor of Latin in the University of Oxford. London. Whittaker and Co., Ave Maria Lane. 1876.
—► 57 Scarth, Volcanic Origins, 89-95.
—► 58 Von Hennig, Geographie. 14-18 ohne letzte Gewißheit mit der Insel Volcano identifiziert.
—► 59 Homer, Ilias I, 590-594 und Odyssee 8,283f.: Literatur bei Henig. ibid., 19 Anm. 6.
—► 60 D. B. Vitaliano, Geomythology 5 definiert den von ihr geprägten Terminus so: „the geomythologic application of euhemerism. The geomythologist seeks to find the real geologic event underlying myth or legend to which it has given rise; thus he helps convert mythologoy back into history.“
—► 61 Baudy, Die Wiederkehr des Typhon, 59: Dieses Mythologem wurde in der Geschichtsschreibung nachträglich historisiert.
—► 62 Libanios, Epitaphios auf Julian, Orationes 18,293 (p. 364 Foerster): παρά τῆς Γῆς ἢ εἰ βούλει γε, τοῦ Ποσειδῶνος.
—► 63 Bickel, Das Verbrechen des Laokoon, 19-27
—► 64 Schachermeyr, Poseidon, 189-203: „Poseidon und das troianische Pferd“
—► 65 Nur zögernd gebilligt von Nilsson in seiner Rezension 167: „very hypothetical, as the author admits, but it is ingenious and appeals more to me than other less probable interpretations of the marvellous horse.“
—► 66 Hierzu Usener, Sintflutsagen, mit Ergänzungen: Ders., Zu den Sintflutsagen, 382-396.

SOURCE
Wolfgang Hübner, Mythische Geographie, S.24-26. in: Wolfgang Hübner (Hg.), Geschichte der Mathematik und der Naturwissenschaften in der Antike, Band 2, Geographie und verwandte Wissenschaften, Franz Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart, 2000
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Translations
—► 1833 At Hugh Stuart Boyd’s, a blind scholar of the Greek language, suggestion, Elizabeth Barrett Browning translated Aeschylus’ Prometheus Bound (published in 1833; retranslated in 1850)… Browning imitated his hero Shelley by spiriting his beloved off to Italy in August 1846 …
—► 1868: Edward Hayes Plumptre, – verse: full text.
—► 1906: John Stuart Blackie, – verse: full text.
—► 1908: E. D. A. Morshead, – verse: full text.
—► 1924: G.M.Cookson, – verse: full text.
—► 1926: Herbert Weir Smyth, – prose: full text

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REFERENCES
—► Prometheus Bound and the Others (philanthropist, ruler, writer, voyager) Essays on the problems of inter-literary relations in general and the possibilities of association links between certain classical texts in particular. Under tentative consideration are certain impressive Greek and Roman literary documents and preserved artefacts – and the possibility of associations towards partial moments of the Early Christian literature. Areas deserving our interest are so abundant and fertile that merely essay discourses cannot be sufficient for a significant research. Therefore, we would appreciate it if the submitted pages were understood as an outline of certain fields of issues, which are based on the results of researchers’ work from various periods.
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Hyaden & Plejaden
Gemeinsam mit den Hyaden bilden die Plejaden (M45) das "Goldene Tor der Ekliptik". Dieser Namen rührt zum einen daher, dass sie in ihrer Mitte von der scheinbare Sonnenbahn durchzogen werden und zum anderen vom Umstand eines sich verschiebenden Frühlingspunktes: noch bis etwa 2000 vor Christus lag dieser Punkt, den man seit jeher mit Wachstum und Fruchtbarkeit gleichsetzte, im Stier.

NEWS
The alleged torture, which Mohammed al-Qahtani (the "20th hijacker" in the 9/11 attacks) detailed in a written statement, included being beaten, restrained for long periods in uncomfortable positions, threatened with dogs, exposed to loud music and freezing temperatures and stripped nude in front of female personnel. [_news.yahoo.com, 14th January 2009_]
Detainee claims to have lied under CIA torture "Where is he? I don’t know. Then he torture me," said Mohammed, the self-confessed mastermind of the September 11, 2001 attacks on New York and Washington.
"Then I said: ‘Yes, he is in this area or this is Al-Qaeda…’ I said no, they torture me."
[_news.yahoo.com, 16 June 2009_]
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google search results (Jul 2009 // Apr 2010)
The Situation of Punishment (and Forgiveness) Posted by The Situationist Staff on October 11, 2008
«Aetna» @ technorati
Prometheus @ 123people.de
Debunking the Torture Apologists’ “Half the Intelligence” Claim By: emptywheel Saturday April 18, 2009
«titans» @ flickr-hivemind
image posted @ schaumalrein – 26 April 2010
Prometheus Books … publishing company founded in 1969 by Paul Kurtz (Council for Secular Humanism)
‘Prolegomena to Prononymity: What’s the Worst that Can Happen?’ @ healthreformwatch …my creation is posted with credit for ‘quapan’ but with altered image & subtitle and without backlink to this flickr-page since January 25, 2009 …
Myth Monday – Family Constellations of Atlas by N.S.Gill’s Ancient History Blog, August 9, 2010.
Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 192: "Astronomer Atlas by Pleione or an Oceanide had twelve daughters, and a son, Hyas. The son was killed by a wild boar or a lion, and the sisters, grieving for him, died of this grief. The five of them first put among the stars have their place between the horns of the bull — Phaesyla, Ambrosia, Coronis, Eudora, Polyxo — and are called, from their brother’s name, Hyades . . . The rest of the sisters (Asterope – Taygete – Celaino – Elektra – Maia – Merope – Alkyone) were called Pleiades."

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21th May 2014: 33,956 views

Intl Gay Rodeo Association
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Gay Rodeo History
It is a huge surprise to many that the gay community is involved in rodeo, but this being America and the fact that all of us are intrigued with our Western heritage, it only adds to the reality "We are everywhere!"

The gay community has found many creative ways to become involved with America in efforts to overcome the walls of prejudice. The "Imperial Court" system, which is active in many cities across America, asked their "Empress and Emperor" to raise money for charity. It was felt that raising money for the "Muscular Dystrophy Association" would make a statement for both our existence and our concern for our neighbors.

Reno Gay Rodeos
Emperor I of Reno, Phil Ragsdale, came up with one of the most creative ideas to raise funds. The year was 1975 and Ragsdale wanted to help out the local Senior Citizens Annual Thanksgiving Day feed. An amateur gay rodeo would be fun, raise money, and even erase a lot of gay stereotyping. Ragsdale did not find it easy to pull off this event. He did finally land the Washoe County Fairgrounds for October 2, 1976 and then could not get any local ranchers to allow gays the use of their animals. Finally, on October 1, 1976, he was able to locate five "wild" range cows, ten "wild" range calves, one pig, and a Shetland pony. The next day, "IT WAS RODEO TIME!" Over 125 people took part in this "first" event and the winners were crowned; first, "King of the Cowboys," second, "Queen of the Cowgirls," and third, "Miss Dusty Spurs" (the drag queen). It was great fun and a minor success.
Ragsdale added several new twists to the 1977 version of this rodeo/fundraiser. He founded the Comstock Gay Rodeo Association and his rodeo project became the National Reno Gay Rodeo. Following the Imperial Court’s lead, Ragsdale added the "Mr., Ms., and Miss National Reno Gay Rodeo" contest to benefit the Muscular Dystrophy Association.

The 1977 rodeo, although still small, with its new twists donated 4.00 to MDA under the name of "Reno Gay Liberation." The National Reno Gay Rodeo became a total new outlet for the gay community and created a dual party, "emerging Gay Liberation mixed into a Country/Western party" and "24-hour casinos." Dance troupes from the gay community found an arena to show off their stuff. Square dancing, clogging, formation line dancing, and the rebirth of the two-step made the nights into fabulous parties!

By 1980 a group out of California, the "Pacific Coast Gay Rodeo Association," had emerged with talented rodeo contestants. Fresno, California and Utah had presented some of the top contenders for the Mr., Ms., and Miss titles. Gay rodeo, and the parties surrounding the event, had gained a great foothold in America. Texas was the big state in 1981, bringing a host of fans in Texas T-shirts, a hot contender for All-Around Cowboy, and Mr., Ms., and Miss contestants, who by the way raised nearly ,000 for MDA. The Miss from Texas won the competition for Miss National Reno Gay Rodeo. With San Francisco only a short drive away, the underground gay network spread the word about this "party" and the audience in the grandstands grew to 10,000. Those who only came for the nightlife swelled the head count of gays in the city to over 40,000!

1982 was dominated by Colorado and brought another change to Ragsdale’s rodeo: contestants who wanted standardized rodeo rules so they would feel that they were competing on an equal basis. Many contestants from the previous five years did not return for competition. The Mr., Ms., and Miss National Reno Gay Rodeo contestants were no longer comfortable raising large numbers of dollars just for MDA. Texas in particular was disappointed in this area and decided not to return in 1983.

So 1983′s version of Mr., Ms., and Miss National Reno Gay Rodeo allowed contestants to designate 50% to MDA and 50% to a gay-related charity of their choice. Most chose the AIDS Foundation. 1983 also saw the largest number of dance groups ever assembled at a gay rodeo and the grandstands filled with over 12,000 people. The lack of consistent rules continued to create problems in the arena.

By 1984, the ninth and final National Reno Gay Rodeo still brought over 10,000 people to the rodeo grounds and thousands more to Reno for the gambling and nighttime parties. The IRS credits the demise of this rodeo to a dispute with Washoe County Fairgrounds and the Sands Hotel along with the purported seizure of the rodeo books. Nonetheless, Phil Ragsdale had made a major mark on gay history and introduced the renowned Rose Maddox and Joan Rivers to the emerging gay-Western lifestyle and kindled the flame in the hearts of many men and women scattered across the nation.

The Colorado Connection
Across the nation, the gay community began to set the tone for the "Urban Cowboy" phenomenon. Beginning in 1980, a popular disco called "The Broadway" in Denver introduced Country/Western nights with Ron Jesser teaching the two-step. It became so popular that the club dropped its disco format and catered strictly to this new country crowd and changed their name to "Broadway Country."
The city of Denver and the changing need for government buildings brought the "Broadway Country" to a roaring halt in January 1981 when the city gained control of the property for a new Justice Building. Denver’s two-steppers were still hungry for a place to "do their thing" and one of the most ardent fans gambled his world to bring a country dance floor back to the gay community.

John King opened "Charlie’s" in Denver in early June of 1981 and the urban cowboys were again happy. The underground gossip chain rumored that country bars were springing up all across the nation and believe it or not, a gay rodeo in Reno, Nevada. A handful of adventuresome cowboys from Denver decided to check it out and even if it wasn’t true, Reno had great casinos. It proved true and a couple of the men even became contestants.

The boys from Denver saw an unbelievable mass of gay humanity coming together in Country/Western celebration. A couple of groups from San Francisco introduced Square Dancing (The Foggy City Squares), clogging (The Barbary Coast Cloggers) and a line dance called "Kaw-Liga." Rose Maddox belted out a theme that the gay community dearly loved, "Stand By Your Man." Everywhere you looked, the Pride of Texas was in front of you with great looking T-shirts and loads of enthusiasm. They had raised nearly ,000 for Muscular Dystrophy and their Miss candidate even won the title of Miss Reno National Gay Rodeo.

At the closing party in a jam-packed room at the Sands Hotel, the newly crowned Miss Reno National Gay Rodeo (Miss Texas) came face to face with Wayne Jakino. He couldn’t move left or right and felt compelled to congratulate Miss Texas. She responded, "Thank you, and where are ya’ll from?" Jakino said he was from Denver and Miss Texas chided, "Well, ya’ll might as well of not shown up from all we have seen of you." Jakino let his mouth overload and snapped, "Yeah, but check us out next year!"

Excited about the Reno weekend, Jesser asked John King if Charlie’s would allow a group to meet to talk rodeo. The first meeting saw Jesser, Jakino, and seven other men commit themselves to form the Colorado Gay Rodeo Association (CGRA) and return in force to Reno.

In just a little over a month, on September 13, 1981, the new association elected its first officers, with 42 people present, and make its first public appearance at a community fundraiser that evening. Jakino was elected Founding President and his memory burned with the taunting from Miss Texas. It was now "Reno or Bust!" time. It should be noted that the argument over placing the word "gay" in the name of the association had raged for a month before the election and for two months following at every bylaws ratification meeting.

Founding membership was held open on December 1, 1981 and hit 94 founding members. Thereafter, membership continued to climb. Surprisingly so, for historical purposes, this new rodeo group didn’t even own a horse!

The next ten months were frantic and filled with enthusiasm. When August of 1982 rolled around, 270 CGRA members and over 150 supporters wearing shirts emblazoned with the slogan "Colorado Rides With Pride" arrived for the Reno National Gay Rodeo! This time they even had horses! The entourage included the first mounted gay drill team, the Mile High Square Dancers, the Denver Country Cloggers, candidates for the Mr., Ms., and Miss titles, and 43 rodeo contestants, which comprised two-thirds of the contestants for that rodeo.

Colorado contestants quickly learned that the rules of the rodeo arena changed from one minute to the next and learned from other returning contestants that this had been true in the past. The contestants voiced a wish for uniform rules in order to improve the quality of rodeo and more rodeos in which they could hone their skills.

Why not? A new challenge! Start another rodeo! Colorado returned home and talked rodeo. Practicality clearly indicated Colorado had not raised the amount of money that Texas had and additionally, Texas had a huge population base and an emerging political climate that Colorado could not match.

The Texas Connection
Colorado picked up the gossip from the underground network that there were great Country/Western bars with urban cowboys operating in Dallas, Fort Worth, Houston, Austin, and San Antonio. Having already made a few Texas friends in Reno, CGRA decided the road to another rodeo led through Texas. A Colorado delegation headed south in the fall of 1982 determined to talk Texas into forming an association and hosting a rodeo.
Wayne Jakino, Rich Rezac, John King, and Kenny Cunitz arrived in Houston and headed for "The Barn." Walter Strickler and Terry Clark operated the club. Both men had been very involved in the efforts to bring Texas to Reno. The "Brazos River Bottom" was the hot country-dance bar and the target for added support in the rodeo effort. Discussions were positive, but Houston leaders were very hesitant to go forward. The official answer was, "You stage a rodeo in Colorado and we will work hard to support you." If you ever bump into Rezac, Cunitz, or the security guard from the Allen Park Inn in Houston, be sure and ask about the "Ester Williams Midnight Synchronized Diving Exhibition!"

The Colorado delegation was not discouraged. San Antonio and the much-talked-about "Snuffy’s Saloon" were just up the road. Ron Weaver and Swampy were great hosts and Snuffy’s was hopping, but the official answer was, "You stage a rodeo in Colorado and we will work hard to support you."

The city of Austin was a short drive away, but the group hit this one cold turkey. The target was called "The Red River Crossing" and the people were really friendly. After a really good time, there was no official answer, but some really nice people said, "If Colorado does stage a rodeo, we will sure come to see it!"

Okay, so Fort Worth and Dallas were just up the road! A stop at "The 651 Club" in Fort Worth netted support from some really helpful cowboys and they escorted the group over to Dallas. It took all of two minutes in "The Roundup" to meet Tom Sweeney and Richard Montgomery. The Roundup was "The Mecca" for the "Urban Cowboy" and everybody was ready to rodeo, but not in Texas and not after Colorado had talked to Houston first. Colorado did get a very sincere official answer, "You stage a rodeo in Colorado and we will work hard to support you."

The delegation headed home to Colorado fully convinced. If the five largest cities in Texas were coming to the Colorado Rodeo, it was time to start organizing.

Back to the Colorado Connection
CGRA had little problem getting a vote of approval from its membership to stage a rodeo so the committee went to work. To be politically correct, the rodeo needed to be two months in front of the Reno rodeo, since that one was called the "National" Reno Gay Rodeo. As sort of preliminary competition and hoping to provide ownership of an event to a much larger area, the rodeo was established as the "Rocky Mountain Regional Rodeo."
Everything was rosy, except that CGRA could not land rodeo grounds. The answer was a flat "NO" or more delicately phrased, the answer was, "and we would be delighted to book your rodeo. What date were you wanting?" or "Oh, that date isn’t available!" Nor was any other date for the next ten years. Only days before the decision to postpone the rodeo, an attorney called with the cryptic message that Aurora, Colorado had a "non-discriminating" clause on the use of it’s parks and that an unknown and run down little arena existed on the eastern edge of that city.

History records June 3, 1983 as the date that the Denver metropolitan area became the second location in the United States to stage a gay rodeo. As promised, Texas arrived with major support and additional contestants from California trekked across the country for the first Rocky Mountain Regional Rodeo. Torrential rains hit the rodeo, but too much effort had been spent to let a little water stop the festivities. Colorado’s membership topped 390 by rodeo time.

The Texas Gay Rodeo Association
Terry Clark and Walter Strickler asked the original Colorado delegates to return to Houston for the Gay Pride Celebration in late June 1983. If Colorado could provide the books from their rodeo validating that the rodeo had not lost money, they would invite all interested individuals in Texas to attend a meeting to form the Texas Gay Rodeo Association (TGRA). The Gay Pride Celebration was a success with a reported crowd of 54,000 lining the streets. The vote to proceed to form TGRA was also a success.
Within a few short months, Texas banded together a network inside their largest cities and forged the framework for a multi-city organization. A November 1984 date was targeted to stage the first TGRA rodeo and the search began for rodeo grounds, which were finally located in Simonton, 35 miles outside of Houston. Texas became the third state to stage a gay rodeo.

The California Connection
The "Urban Cowboy" phenomenon also appeared in California in the early eighties. While Fresno and the Bay Area were the most visible at the Reno rodeos, a loosely organized group called the "Pacific Coast Gay Rodeo Association" provided contestants for both the Reno and Colorado rodeos. Hundreds of men and women attended the Reno rodeos, but the man with the burning desire to organize California was in Long Beach.
Al Bell opened "Floyd’s" in Long Beach, which became one of the best Country/Western bars in the Greater Los Angeles area. Bell and Pat McGrath traveled to Reno and Denver and became hooked. As we saw in Colorado and Texas, a mere handful of enthused people is all that is needed to put life into a new association. Bell invited folks from CGRA and TGRA to visit and McGrath leaped into organizing "Floyd’s Cloggers," later to become one of the best-known dance troupes in the nation. The Golden State Gay Rodeo Association (GSGRA) officially organized in 1984 and set a rodeo date for the following March. The Los Angeles Equestrian Center, located in Burbank, became the site for the fourth state to host a gay rodeo. Dozens of dance teams from around the nation performed to huge crowds.

The Arizona Connection
Things were also shaking in Phoenix as early as 1982, when a small group traveled to the Reno rodeo and Tish Tanner won the title of Miss Reno National Gay Rodeo. Arizona would come to life in the fall of 1984 when King decided to open a second "Charlie’s" in Phoenix. The bar opened in early November and since King and Kenny Cunitz lived and breathed rodeo, it was only a matter of weeks before the Arizona Gay Rodeo Association (AGRA) formed. In December 1984 the new group targeted January of 1986 for their first rodeo.
Arizona became the fifth state to host a gay rodeo and the event took place in the most unique arena facility on the south side of Phoenix: a Mexican Charro rodeo arena with an attached dance hall known as the Corona Ranch.

Would Gay Rodeo Have a Future?
With four rodeos now scheduled and more contestants joining each day, Jakino felt that an umbrella organization was needed to provide unity between the rodeos and fully standardized rules for the contestants, as well as guiding the growth of gay rodeo’s future. Leaders from Colorado, Texas, California, and Arizona were invited to Phoenix for a preliminary discussion. Jakino and Jesser from Colorado, Clark and Strickler from Texas, Bell and McGrath from California, and King and Cunitz from Arizona all agreed to proceed to organize the umbrella organization.
The Articles of Incorporation of the "International Gay Rodeo Association" were filed in Colorado and the four associations met again in March of 1985, in Denver, and elected a temporary board with Jakino presiding. A formal convention date was scheduled for September of 1985, again in Denver, to standardized rodeo rules and plan objectives for growth.

The Oklahoma Connection
The "Urban Cowboy" syndrome was alive in Oklahoma, too. Les Krambeal and Walt Rupprecht had been to Reno and owned a great bar in Oklahoma City called "The Bunkhouse." Krambeal made contact with CGRA members and asked for guidelines to help organize the Oklahoma Gay Rodeo Association (OGRA) in the summer of 1985. When Krambeal learned that there was a scheduled convention to finalize a new organization in Denver that September, both Krambeal and Rupprecht lit every fire necessary to prepare the framework for OGRA and made plans to appear at this convention and ask for recognition of their state association.
OGRA was accepted at the IGRA convention in Denver and truly became the unabashed joyful child of the rodeo world. Friends from Colorado went to Oklahoma City often and OGRA’s enthusiasm was contagious. By the fall of 1985, Oklahoma announced they had scheduled a rodeo for July 1986.

The International Gay Rodeo Association
With ten years of gay rodeo history already in the record books, a gathering of rodeo junkies gathered to formalize the future of gay rodeo in Denver in September of 1985. Nine months of preparation already had been invested in efforts to assure the continuity, growth, and heritage of the Country/Western lifestyle in the gay community. Colorado, Texas, California, and Arizona were each represented by five delegates. The convention opened by recognizing the newly formed Oklahoma Gay Rodeo Association and their four delegates.
The five founding states of the International Gay Rodeo Association (IGRA) elected Jakino as their Founding President and formally adopted the Articles of Incorporation in the state of Colorado. They ratified the bylaws, approved events, standardized rodeo rules, and committed the organization to the fostering of national and international amateur rodeo and other equestrian competition and related arts, crafts and activities which encourage the education on or preservation of "Country/Western" lifestyle heritage.

History has recorded 14 gay rodeos (nine Reno rodeos, three Colorado rodeos, one Texas rodeo and one California rodeo) prior to the formation of IGRA. The convention also scheduled the sanctioned rodeo season for 1986, running from November 1, 1985 to October 31, 1996:

Texas – November, 1985
Arizona – January, 1986
California – March, 1986
Colorado – June, 1986
Oklahoma – July, 1986
Convention – September, 1986 (in Denver)
During 1986, interest in gay rodeo continued to grow and Oklahoma passed their enthusiasm into surrounding states. The second IGRA Annual Convention in Denver welcomed and seated the Kansas Gay Rodeo Association (KGRA), the Missouri Gay Rodeo Association (MGRA), and the New Mexico Gay Rodeo Association (NMGRA). This convention also approved a new framework for the IGRA bylaws to allow future growth. They also accepted a bid from California to host the first IGRA Finals Rodeo in Hayward, California at the end of the 1986 rodeo year.

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8 Responses to ►Atlas.Typhoëus.Prometheus◄ being.tortured.insurgents [_550 BC_] images|Nice [kindle Fire Support] photos]

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  3. mikescottnz June 15, 2014 at 3:11 pm #

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  5. aurelio madrid June 15, 2014 at 4:08 pm #

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  8. =) Happy Jack June 15, 2014 at 4:25 pm #

    Thanks for posting the Gay Rodeo History for all to see!

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